Each age has its own characteristics, whichaffect the behavior and worldview of people. Adolescence is a long transition period in which a number of physical changes occur related to puberty and adulthood. Psychological features of adolescence among psychologists are called "teenage complexes" for a number of reasons:
- heightened sensitivity to the evaluation of strangers;
- extreme arrogance and categorical judgments in relation to others;
- contradictory behavior: shyness is replaced by cheekiness, ostentatious independence borders on vulnerability;
- emotional instability and sudden mood swings;
- fight against common rules and common ideals.
The adolescent age covers the period of life from 13up to 18 years (± 2 years). All psychological changes are due to the physiological characteristics of adolescence and a number of morphological processes in the body. All changes in the body directly affect the changes in the reactions of the adolescent to various environmental factors and are reflected in the formation of the personality.
Anatomical and physiological features of adolescence
- Great changes occur in the endocrine system, which leads to a rapid and disproportionate increase in body weight and length and the development of secondary sexual characteristics.
- Complex processes of structural and functionalchanges occur in the central nervous system and internal structures of the brain, which entails an increased excitability of the nerve centers of the cerebral cortex and the weakening of the processes of internal inhibition.
- Significant changes are observed in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, which can lead to various functional disorders (fatigue, syncope).
- The musculoskeletal system is actively developing: the formation of bone tissue, the increase in muscle mass, is completed, therefore, in the adolescence, correct rational nutrition is very necessary.
- The development of the digestive system is completed: the digestive organs are extremely "vulnerable" due to the constant emotional and physical stress.
- Harmonious physical development of the whole organism is a consequence of the normal functioning of all organ systems and influences the mental state of adolescents.
Socially psychological characteristics of adolescence
Psychological aspect of adolescencecomes to the fore. Development of the psyche is characterized by increased emotionality and excitability. Sensing his physical changes, the teenager tries to behave like an adult. Excessive activity and unreasonable self-confidence, he does not recognize the support of adults. Negativism and a sense of adulthood are psychological neoplasms of a teenager's personality.
In adolescence, the need forfriendship, orientation to the "ideals" of the collective. In communication with peers there is a simulation of social relationships, skills are acquired to assess the consequences of one's own behavior or moral values.
Characteristics of the nature of communication with parents, teachers,
Often it is not easy for teachers and parents to find the right approach in dealing with adolescents, but given the age features of this age, solutions can always be found.